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 Table of Contents  
COMMENTARY
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 49-51

Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: An overview of the event


Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Port Sudan Ahlia College, Port Sudan, Sudan

Date of Submission21-Apr-2020
Date of Acceptance10-May-2020
Date of Web Publication22-May-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bashir Abdrhman Bashir Mohammed
Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Port Sudan Ahlia College, Port Sudan
Sudan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/LJMS.LJMS_31_20

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How to cite this article:
Bashir Mohammed BA. Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: An overview of the event. Libyan J Med Sci 2020;4:49-51

How to cite this URL:
Bashir Mohammed BA. Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: An overview of the event. Libyan J Med Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 11];4:49-51. Available from: http://www.ljmsonline.com/text.asp?2020/4/2/49/284685



On December 2019, the world has encountered a worldwide, quickly developing infest of a 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Researchers, clinicians, health workers, and general well-being experts are hustling to see progressions about the idea of this viral infection. Consistently, there is another revelation, however, there is such a significant number of inquiries that want to be addressed and unknowns that should be investigated. A few cases of pneumonia of occult etiology have been accounted for in Wuhan, Hubei area, China.[1],[2],[3] Most patients elaborated on or resided around the nearby Huanan seafood wholesale market, where live animals were also on sale. In the beginning periods of this pneumonia, an extreme acute respiratory disease with many side effects happened, with certain patients quickly creating acute respiratory distress disorder (ARDS), intense respiratory failure, and different genuine entanglements. On January 7, 2020, a 2019-nCoV was identified by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention from the throat swab examination of a patient and right now named as CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO),[4] whereas the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has renamed it as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (SARS-CoV-2).[3] Although calling the virus as “SARS-CoV-2” is likely enough accurate, for a facility, we will use the WHO name (COVID-19) in this editorial.

The WHO proclaimed the COVID-19 episode as the sixth public health crisis of worldwide concern because of the way that this infection is transmitted from human to human through droplets (blobs) and direct or indirect contact and conveys an extraordinary potential to prompt pandemic disease.[4] Viral effusion of the virus infection from the upper respiratory tract can proceed up to 1–3 weeks in symptomatic cases from the introductory onset of symptoms.[5],[6] This infection can be shed in the stool of the asymptomatic cases as long as 17 days of the last manifestation to the virus.[7] Asymptomatic cases or a presymptomatic transporter can likely transmit SARS-CoV-2 to others.[8] Debased lifeless surfaces encompassing the patients with COVID-19 in the emergency clinic ought not to be neglected as a significant wellspring of transmission of infection.[9]

At the time of composing this commentary, COVID-19 has invested in 210 countries, and the number of confirmed cases exceeded 2,501,156; the total recovered about 659,732 and total deaths about 171,810. The documented fatality rates in the USA, Italy, Spain, and France secondary for COVID-19 infection were 44,120, 24,268, 21,282, and 20,265 exceeding China with 39,488, 19,636, 16,650, and 15,633 deaths, respectively. The USA too reported the greatest number of confirmed cases (n = 808,702), followed by Spain (n = 207,178), Italy (n = 183,957), Germany (n = 148,004), the United Kingdom (n = 129,044), France (n = 114,657), China (n = 81,639), and then Iran (n = 70,029). Recently, only about 107 cases have been reported in Sudan, with 12 deaths and 8 recoveries. These nations with continuous nearby transmission are recorded to be another emphasis on the transmission of COVID-19 to neighboring nations in the Europe, Arabian Gulf nations, and the Middle East. The WHO, on March 11, 2020, expressed that “after making the essential appraisal COVID-19 can be portrayed as a pandemic.”[4]

CoVs are enveloped nonsegmented positive-sense RNA viruses pertinence to the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales and extensively circulated in people and other mammals. Although most human CoV contagions are mild, the epidemics of the two betacoronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2[2],[3],[4] and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV),[5],[6] have caused in excess of 10,000 absolute incidence cases in the past two decades, with fatality rates of 10% for SARS-CoV-2 and 37% for MERS-CoV.[7],[8] An ongoing genomic investigation of COVID-19 proposed bat or bat excreta as the source of the COVID-19 that tainted nourishment in markets[10] and dismissed the other speculations of development because of an ongoing recombination event. COVID-19 genomic sequence was demonstrated over 80% comparative similar to SARS-CoV-1 and just 50% identity to MERS-CoV.[11] Clinical remarks of COVID-19 have extended from asymptomatic/mild side effects to severe disease and mortality. Symptoms may appear 2 days to 2 weeks following exposure to the virus. The mean hatching time was 4 days (interquartile range, 2–7); however, it might expand as long as 14 days. Subsequently, isolation of contacts of cases with COVID-19 ought to be put in quarantine for a couple of weeks.[12]

Ground-glass appearance on chest computed tomography scan was announced at 56.4% of the cases, and lymphopenia was the major hematological outcome (83.2%). Among all cases introduced, mild sickness was seen in 81%, extreme in 14%, and also, just 5% had fundamentally extreme illness, ARDS (17%), intense respiratory injury (8%), intense renal injury (3%), and septic shock (4%). The cases brought into the intensive care units were undoubtedly to be older cases with basic comorbid chronic clinical troubles. Pediatric cases can be tainted with COVID-19, and they typically present with a milder illness; moreover, they may act as a carrier and infest the viral infection to close contacts. It has been assured that death ratio differs significantly with the most elevated fatality rate among cases aged ≥80 years (14.8%), 70–79 years (8%), 60–69 years (3.6%), 50–59 years (1.3%), and <50 years (0.4%).[13] Moreover, researchers proposed that the sophistication of another variety in the functional location in the receptor-binding domain of the spike appears in COVID-19 due to the viral development as a result of mutation, determination, and recombination develop into two significant sorts (L-type and S-type), each has unique single nucleotides polymorphisms. The L-type is the one that spreads rapidly at first during the episode in Wuhan (70%) and was related to additional extreme disease and diminished toward in January, whereas type S is the ancestral version (30%) that infests a short time later and is less forceful. A few cases have been seen as tainted by the two kinds.[14]

Every suspected case with COVID-19 ought to be tried utilizing the suggested molecular technique prescribed by the WHO. A negative nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal specimen result should not be utilized to preclude COVID-19 contamination. It is realized that the objective, practical receptor of these infections is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 that is mainly situated on Type 1 and Type 2 alveolar cells.[13] It is ordered that all outcomes be explicated in concordance with the clinical suspicion and epidemiological connection. Serological tests for COVID-19 may recognize the disease in patients with indications or asymptomatic patients. The actuality that these tests (IgM and IgG) may take from a few days to a couple of weeks after the advancement of manifestations in order to be identified, and the issue of cross-reactivity with different viruses make their clinical utility in the administration of extremely sick patients encompassed by constraint and skepticism. At present, there is no approved explicit antiviral therapy or vaccination for COVID-19.[11] However, a few therapy alternatives have been utilized for the management of cases with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China, including ganciclovir, oseltamivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir, two times every day for a duration ranging from 3 to 14 days. Other promising medications are remdesivir, chloroquine, and tocilizumab, and clinical preliminaries on these drugs are running on in the USA, Europe, and China. As of late, trial studies displayed clinical and virologic benefits of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19 versus controls. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are right now suggested for the treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a few nations. The two medications have known security profiles; the primary side effect is cardiotoxicity.[15] Although demands further analysis in large, well-controlled experiments, convalescent plasma therapy was well tolerated and could potentially uptrend the clinical outcomes in severe COVID-19 patients.[16] Based on the US Food and Drug Administration, respiratory viruses are not recognized to be transmitted through blood transfusion.[17]

We trust that with worldwide joint effort among all universal clinical focuses and sharing the information and expertise, another improvement of an effective vaccine for COVID-19 will develop shortly. Recently, the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases declared Stage I human preliminary to create (mRNA-1273 to express the popular spike protein) vaccine for COVID-19.[11] There is a misbelief among certain practitioners and the overall population that COVID-19 disease will decrease and vanish during a hot climate. However, there are no statements to bolster that COVID-19 is a seasonal contagion; along these lines, all suggested prevented safety measures should keep during the summer until the WHO or other national or worldwide health authorities declare data about the conduct COVID-19 during summer.[17]

In synopsis, COVID-19 is a rising infection considered as a worldwide public health emergency, which requires a concurrent more elevated level of responsive measures from all nations. Expeditiously, clinical trials of potential medications for COVID-19 are required. Furthermore, the advancement of a productive and safe vaccine is a global priority. Further research is required to better comprehend the study of the disease epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, and clinical seriousness of the COVID-19 infection.



 
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Hui DS, I Azhar E, Madani TA, Ntoumi F, Kock R, Dar O, et al. The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health-The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Int J Infect Dis 2020;91:264-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-2019). Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/naming-the-coronavirus-disease-(covid-2019)-and-the-virus-that-causes-it. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 11].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) outbreak in China: Summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese center for disease control and prevention. JAMA 2020;323:1239-42.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Tang X, Wu C, Li X, Song Y, Yao X, Wu X, et al. On the origin and continuing evolution of SARS CoV 2. Nat Sci Rev 2020;nwaa036. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwaa036. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 22].  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res 2020;30:269-71.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Duan K, Liu B, Li C, Zhang H, Yu T, Qu J, et al. Effectiveness of convalescent plasma therapy in severe patients. PNAS 2020;117:9490-6.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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