|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 61-65
Life-threatening adverse reaction to a commonly used drug (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome)
Mohamed Khalid A. Shariff, Gamal Bashir Alfitori, Mohamed Soliman, Mohamed Ben Gashir, Abdel-Naser Y Elzouki
Department of Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
|Date of Web Publication||24-Jun-2019|
Dr. Mohamed Khalid A. Shariff
Department of Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, P. O. Box: 3050, Doha
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is one of the severe cutaneous adverse reactions with a mortality of 10% and is characterized by hematological abnormalities and organ involvement. Many drugs have been implicated in DRESS, and most often, it is related to aromatic anticonvulsants. We hereby report a case of DRESS syndrome precipitated due to allopurinol, the diagnostic challenge it presented, and the successful treatment with corticosteroids.
Keywords: Allopurinol, drug rash, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, eosinophilia and systemic symptoms
|How to cite this article:|
A. Shariff MK, Alfitori GB, Soliman M, Gashir MB, Elzouki ANY. Life-threatening adverse reaction to a commonly used drug (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome). Libyan J Med Sci 2019;3:61-5
|How to cite this URL:|
A. Shariff MK, Alfitori GB, Soliman M, Gashir MB, Elzouki ANY. Life-threatening adverse reaction to a commonly used drug (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome). Libyan J Med Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Aug 5];3:61-5. Available from: http://www.ljmsonline.com/text.asp?2019/3/2/61/261063
| Introduction|| |
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome also known as drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome is a serious and life-threatening adverse drug reaction which is characterized by rash, fever, lymphadenopathy, hematologic abnormalities, and multiorgan involvement. The most frequently involved organ is the liver, followed by the kidney and lungs. There are more than 44 drugs implicated in DRESS, and the most common are aromatic anticonvulsant, sulfonamides, dapsone, and allopurinol. Early recognition and initiation of treatment is of paramount importance as the mortality reported with DRESS syndrome is up to 10%., Diagnosis can be difficult or even delayed, as there are no globally accepted diagnostic criteria, and patients invariably present with nonspecific clinical findings.
The exact pathogenesis of DRESS syndrome remains elusive to this date. Many theories have been proposed which include drug detoxification enzyme abnormalities leading to the accumulation of reactive drug metabolites, sequential reactivation of human herpes viruses (HHVs), and genetic predisposition associated with certain human leukocyte antigen alleles. DRESS syndrome most often mimics more common conditions, and the delay between the onset of symptoms and the initiation of the drug (often 2–6 weeks) confounds the diagnosis further.,,, Herein, we describe a case of DRESS syndrome secondary to allopurinol and the diagnostic challenge it presented.
| Case Report|| |
A 35-year-old Filipino male recently diagnosed to have dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia was initiated on allopurinol and atorvastatin. Four weeks following the initiation of the treatment, he presented to the emergency department with fever and a morbilliform rash on his upper trunk and proximal upper extremities which was associated with itching. He was thought to have measles and was initiated on symptomatic treatment and discharged. Two days later, he presented with progression of the rash along with facial edema and bilateral periorbital puffiness [Figure 1]. The rash was maculopapular and blanchable and was associated with diffuse oral mucositis and thrush over the tongue. He was seen by the dermatologist, and a differential diagnosis of acute viral exanthema, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, or drug eruption was made. The patient was subsequently admitted to the ward, and two skin biopsies were obtained. Immediately afterward, the patient was started on antihistamines, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (1 g/kg), and only a topical corticosteroid cream given his high leukocyte count and fever on presentation. The patient was noted to have recurrent spikes of fever and rash progression to a follicular and pustular morphology. In addition, his liver enzymes started rising, and his leukocyte counts were persistently high with a significant eosinophil fraction. At this point, DRESS syndrome secondary to allopurinol was suspected.
Both skin biopsies showed similar features [Figure 2], in which the epidermis showed orthokeratosis, focal parakeratosis, and mild acanthosis with marked spongiosis extending into the adnexal structure. The superficial dermis showed mild to moderate perivascular and periadnexal mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate admixed with large number of eosinophils and occasional neutrophils. Scattered interstitial inflammatory cells including eosinophils and nuclear debris are present. There were congested capillaries with red blood cell extravasation and dermal edema with focal lymphocytes exocytosis and interface changes. Fungal stain was negative. The histological features are consistent with drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS).
|Figure 2: Orthokeratosis and acanthosis with spongiosis extending into the adnexal structure along with perivascular and interstitial lymphocytes and eosinophils|
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Systemic corticosteroids were initiated for definitive treatment. Improvement was monitored by vital signs, rash resolution, daily liver function tests (LFTs), and leukocyte counts. There was a pronounced decline of his LFTs and leukocyte counts over the course of his admission. In addition, his fever subsided and his rash started to abate. The periorbital swelling remarkably diminished [Figure 3], and eventually, the patient was discharged. The patient was subsequently followed in the outpatient for 8 weeks until his LFTs normalized and the corticosteroids were gradually tapered off and discontinued [Graph 1], [Graph 2], [Graph 3].
| Discussion|| |
DRESS syndrome is a subtype of severe cutaneous adverse reactions, which is a clinical syndrome characterized by a triad of fever, rash, and internal organ involvement. The estimated incidence is 1 in 1000–1 in 10,000 drug exposures with a mortality rate of around 10%. Many drugs have been implicated in its causation most commonly anticonvulsants, allopurinol, and sulfonamides. The syndrome is also known as drug-induced pseudolymphoma, anticonvulsant hypersensitivity, and drug-induced hypersensitivity. The incidence of allopurinol-induced DRESS syndrome is more controversial and in one study was found to constitute 5.3% of the total cases of DRESS syndrome in one study.
The pathogenesis of DRESS syndrome remains elusive to this date; yet, many theories have been proposed which include detoxification defects leading to reactive metabolite formation, causing subsequent exaggerated immunomediated reactions. The risk of allopurinol-induced DRESS syndrome is increased in patients with renal impairment and concomitant use of thiazide diuretics. Allopurinol-induced DRESS syndrome is thought to be caused by hypersensitivity to a metabolite of allopurinol known as oxypurinol. The presence of comorbid renal impairment or concomitant use of thiazide diuretics results in excessive accumulation of oxypurinol, with subsequent development of DRESS syndrome in susceptible patients. In addition, the reactivation of herpes viruses including Epstein–Barr virus and HHV-6 and-7 has been proposed a potential immunologic trigger for DRESS syndrome. In fact, the detection of HHV-6 reactivation has been recently proposed as a diagnostic marker for DRESS syndrome.,
DRESS syndrome has a diverse clinical presentation. However, most commonly, it presents as a diffuse maculopapular rash but can also be vesicular or pustular in its onset as in our case. Internal organ involvement is found invariably in the vast majority of the cases. The pattern of rash and the organs involved vary from patient to patient. In a review of 172 cases of DRESS syndrome done by Cacoub et al., organ involvement was present in 88% of the cases. The liver was the most commonly involved internal organ, as 59% of the cases had documented liver involvement and typically presented as transaminitis but occasionally as fulminant hepatic failure. Renal involvement was seen in 8% of cases, and pulmonary, cardiac, and nervous system involvement was seen in <5% of cases.
Several criteria have been suggested to better delineate the DRESS syndrome; RegiSCAR group has suggested a series of inclusion criteria and scoring system. The Japanese consensus group has proposed another criteria for the drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, a synonym for DRESS [Table 1].,,,, Our patient fulfilled the inclusion criteria of RegiSCAR, by a score of six points and fulfilled five on the Japanese Criteria.
Classically, there is a 2–6 weeks' delay between the onset of the symptoms and the initiation of the culprit drug. However, the symptoms might occur earlier if the drug is readministered. Fever and rash are the most common symptoms, with spikes of fever ranging from 38°C to 40°C, and often persisting for prolonged periods mimicking an underlying infection. The fever persists in spite of discontinuation of drug. The rash usually affects the face, upper trunk, and extremities. In due course of time, the rash becomes purplish and results in scaling as in our patient.
Our patient presented initially with a maculopapular rash, mucosal blistering, limb and periorbital edema, fever, eosinophilia, a drop in hemoglobin, and transaminitis. Although the presentation was highly consistent with DRESS syndrome, the differential diagnosis of infectious or autoimmune processes and other severe drug reactions such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis were considered, but the histological features excluded these two entities. Extensive laboratory investigations were done [Table 2], including a skin biopsy. The skin biopsy revealed spongiotic dermatitis, consistent with DRESS syndrome. There was a dramatic improvement in the rash as evident by the photographs before his discharge. In addition, there was a gradual improvement in his LFTs after initiating steroids, and he was discharged in a week and was subsequently followed in the outpatient for 8 weeks until his LFTs normalized and the corticosteroids were gradually tapered off and discontinued [Graphs 1-3].
| Conclusion|| |
The diagnosis of DRESS syndrome is challenging and is most often delayed due to its nonspecific presentation. However, given its significant mortality, failure to recognize it could be detrimental. It should be highly suspected in those patients who present with fever, widespread morbilliform skin rash, and eosinophilia within weeks of initiation of potentially causative drugs like allopurinol. The mainstay of treatment of allopurinol-induced DRESS syndrome is prompt discontinuation of the culprit drug, and immediate initiation of systemic corticosteroid, with IVIG being used in refractory cases to prevent a fatal outcome. However, in our case, the patient did not respond to the IVIG, and the rash gradually subsided 1 week after the initiation of systemic corticosteroids.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient has given his consent for his images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patient understands that his name and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal his identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2]