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LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 32-33

Beta-lactamases among bacterial isolates in Southern Libya


1 Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Sabha University, Brack, Libya
2 Food and Water Control Lab, National Center of Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio-Enteropathogens, Pasteur Institute of Tunisia, Tunis, Tunisia
3 Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Aljouf University, Sakakah, KSA
4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya

Date of Web Publication26-Mar-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Aisha M A. Shahlol
Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Sabha University, Brack
Libya
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/LJMS.LJMS_59_18

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How to cite this article:
A. Shahlol AM, AL-Gallas N, Altaher IA, Zorgani A. Beta-lactamases among bacterial isolates in Southern Libya. Libyan J Med Sci 2019;3:32-3

How to cite this URL:
A. Shahlol AM, AL-Gallas N, Altaher IA, Zorgani A. Beta-lactamases among bacterial isolates in Southern Libya. Libyan J Med Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Apr 19];3:32-3. Available from: http://www.ljmsonline.com/text.asp?2019/3/1/32/254959



The wider use of beta-lactam antibiotics against a variety of bacterial infections has resulted in the emergence of high incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria that caused public health concerns and limited therapeutic options available to clinicians.[1] Multigenes carried on both chromosomal and plasmids DNA are involved.[1] ESBLS, AmpC, and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are mostly implicated.[1] Many studies from developing countries that reported resistance to β-lactam antibiotics do not contain much information about the status in the south of Libya.

One hundred bacterial isolates were collected from February 2016 to November 2016.  Escherichia More Details coli, Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from different clinical samples, including urine (n = 75), stool (n = 12), teeth nerve canal (n = 6), eye (n = 4), throat swab (n = 2), and wound (n = 1) of consented patients (1.2 male: 1 female) attended the Medical Laboratories of the Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Sabha University, and Brack Hospital, Libya, which approved by the ethical committee of theirs. The male participants aged 15–85 years (48 years mean) and females aged 20–67 years (52 years mean). Samples were cultured onto MacConkey, blood agar plates (Oxoid, Basingstoke-England) and incubated aerobically at 37°C for 24–48 h. Identification of isolates was done by a series of biochemical tests. The Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method was used according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines,[2] and beta-lactamases activities were tested by the modified Hodge, AmpC disc, and double disk synergy[3],[4] [Table 1].
Table 1: Frequencies n and (%) resistance against β-lactam antibiotics and the activity of beta-lactamases among the investigated bacterial isolates

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The highest resistance percentage was observed against ampicillin followed by augmentin, ceftazidime, and cefotaxime, respectively, whereas the lowest resistance detected was against imipenem (P < 0.05). However, these results are lower than those reported by Kraiem et al.,[5] in the northern part of Libya. Among Staphylococcus spp., 71% were resistant to cefoxitin. Fifty percent of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates produced ESBLs. This is comparable to a study by Kaur et al.[4] that reported 60% ESBLs among their isolates. AmpC production among our isolates ranged from 30% to 80%; the highest was seen among Klebsiella spp. and E. coli isolates. This is higher than other studies that reported 4%–5%.[4] Using the modified Hodge test, it was revealed that 20%–40% of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates possessed carbapenemases [Table 1]. This is lower than reported 75% by Kraiem et al.[5] Our results indicated the expression of different phenotypic activities of β-lactamases as single and combined expression per isolate (P > 0.05). Multiple factors may be having contributed to the high prevalence of resistance in this study, such as lifestyle, lack health awareness within the community, geographical location, and antibiotics use policy. Our results were exhibited the widest of β-lactamases producing bacterial kinds in our area. That must be identifying by a good and available technique with a rigorous antibiotic prescription. Limitations of this study: (1) constrained time and (2) lack of resources.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Palzkill T. Metallo-β-lactamase structure and function. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013;1277:91-104.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-Fifth Informational Supplement M100-S25. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA: 2015. p. 35. Available from: http://www.shop.clsi.org/c. 1253739/site/Sample_pdf/M100S25_sample.pdf. [Last accessed on 2016 Mar 14].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Lee K, Lim YS, Yong D, Yum JH, Chong Y. Evaluation of the hodge test and the imipenem-EDTA double-disk synergy test for differentiating metallo-beta-lactamase-producing isolates of Pseudomonas spp. And acinetobacter spp. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41:4623-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kaur J, Chopra S, Sheevani, Mahajan G. Modified double disc synergy test to detect ESBL production in urinary isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7:229-33.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kraiem AG, Zorgani A, Elahmer O, El Salabi AA, Ghenghesh KS. Carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacilli in Tripoli, Libya. Am J Infect Control 2016;44:1192-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
    



 
 
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